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But how do archaeologists know which layers are old and which are new? (the study of the Earth) teaches archaeologists that: a) soil layers on top are usually younger than layers on the bottom; b) certain soil types are found in certain environments only. For the things and artifacts in the layers, if they aren't diagnostic, archaeologists research a date for them by: -looking up in old catalogues to find when they were made, or popular; -doing chemical or other scientific tests on the artifacts or the things in the same layer as the artifacts; -knowing which layer it came from - whether it is older or younger than the things above or below it. "Present" changes every fifty years, so archaeologists adjust their dates each fifty years. Should archaeologists withhold their findings at any time because they offend some people?This helps an archaeologist know which order layers should be found in and what they should look like. Dating something by knowing what is older or younger than it is, is called to give absolute dates. This seems a lot, by over tens of thousands of years, it isn't. Name three ways an archaeologist uses to date an artifact.

, we find that this ration is the same if we sample a leaf from a tree, or a part of your body.

Think of it like a teaspoon of cocoa mixed into a cake dough—after a while, the ‘ratio’ of cocoa to flour particles would be roughly the same no matter which part of the cake you sampled.

Antiquities can come from various parts of the globe, including the Classical cultures of Greece and Rome, ancient Egypt, the ancient Near Eastern civilizations, the Orient and the Iron Age Celtic World.

Antiquities may include items such as buildings and works of art and even smaller objects, often referred to as portable antiquities.

Using these and other resources, students will research the dates of artifacts from the site and record them and their evidence on the worksheet from this publication. one of the scenarios below: -a campfire, -a cabin foundation with trees growing on the interior, -a pottery sherd (fragment) -a fossilized bone -an unfossilized bone Groups decide which test is appropriate for each scenario and share their findings. Students should design an experiment to test the dating of an artifact. Note the rate of fading of the print on the wrappers. Should the archaeologists have any responsibilities to the local First Nations because the artifact is present?