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From 1986-93, these three countries accounted for nearly 40 percent of all arms exports to developing world countries. Saudi Arabia had sought to buy the jet in the mid-1980s, but Congress opposed the sale on the grounds that it would threaten Israel. has demanded that the jets be equipped with the Air Force's most advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM)-- and the Clinton Administration agreed. Now Israel, Egypt, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia have all lined up to get AMRAAMs. (Country Briefing: Saudi Arabia, Jane's Defense Weekly, 18 August 1999, p. Such sales by the United States also give the green light to other arms exporters to introduce new levels of military technology into this and other tense regions. 27-29 on the difficulty the United States faces in persuading Russia to forgo arms exports to Iran, given high level U. arms transfers to Persian Gulf countries.]At the same time, defense and intelligence officials now routinely cite the spread of advanced and, on occasion, low end conventional weapons as a threat to U. (By comparison, the United States spent about 4.6 percent of its GNP on the military during this same time.) During just 1995-97, over $31 billion was spent on arms imports from the United States and Europe. These budgetary problems have led the Saudi Kingdom to revise payments on $25-$30 billion of U. Saudi financial problems will grow when the embargo on Iraqi oil sales--in place since 1991--is lifted.
Saudi Arabia imported $55.6 billion in arms, Iraq imported $22.7 billion, and Iran imported $13.9 billion. Grimmett, Congressional Research Service, Conventional Arms Transfers to the Third World, 1986-93," 29 July 1994) The sale of F-15E bombers provides a good case study of how others respond to sales of high-tech U. (While relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia improved following the Gulf War, the two are technically still in a state of war.) In September 1992, the Bush Administration and Congress approved the export of 48 of the aircraft to Saudi Arabia, largely on the basis of an aggressive "jobs now" campaign waged by Mc Donnell Douglas (MD), the manufacturer of the aircraft. The sale got caught up in presidential politics, with then-candidate Bill Clinton endorsing the deal while on a campaign stop in St. Shortly thereafter President Bush announced his support for the sale while at a campaign-style rally at the Mc Donnell Douglas factory. A 1995 report by the CIA's non-proliferation center noted that "as countries' reliance on exports to maintain their defense industrial base grows, pressures will increase to export advanced conventional weapons and technologies to remain competitive with the United States in the world arms market" (emphasis added). Nonproliferation Policy, hearing of the House Foreign Affairs Committee (Washington: U. According to William Quandt, a middle east scholar at the Brookings Institution, "This is not a popular regime.
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